Ukraine is the largest wholly European country and the second-largest country in Europe (after the European part of Russia, before metropolitan France). The country has 603,628 square km and has a coastline of 2,782 km. The landscape of Ukraine consists mostly of fertile plains (or steppes) and plateaus, crossed by rivers such as the Dnieper (Dnipro), Seversky Donets, Dniester and the Southern Bug as they flow south into the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov. To the southwest, the delta of the Danube forms the border with Romania. Ukraine's various regions have diverse geographic features ranging from the highlands to the lowlands. The country's biggest mountain is the Carpathian Mountains in the west, of which the highest is the Hora Hoverla at 2,061 metres. However, the country also has a number of highland regions. The snow melt from the mountains feeds the rivers, and natural changes in altitude form sudden drops in elevation and give rise to waterfalls.
As party to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol thereto, Ukraine ensures implementation of its obligations under these international treaties. In spite of the country’ willingness to meet its climate change related obligations, the state policy on climate change is fragmented and is considered only as a component of the environmental policy. There is a lack of a systemic approach to the climate change problem in general, which makes difficult to come up with decisions to ensure mitigation and adaptation to climate change within the entire national economy.
However, Ukraine has implemented several steps, starting with ratifying the Paris Agreement on 14 July 2016. Following this, a Concept of State Climate Change Policy Implementation until 2030 was adopted by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine through the Decree No. 932-p of 7 December 2016. An Action Plan for Implementation of the Concept of State Climate Change Policy Implementation until 2030 was adopted by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine by its Decree No. 878-p of 6 December 2017. The Law on Ozone-Depleting Substances and Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases is under finalization and will be released. The draft of Law on GHG Emissions Monitoring, Reporting and Verification System was developed and published together with the draft strategy of UKRAINE 2050 LOW EMISSION DEVELOPMENT.
According to the Ukraine’s INDC from 2015, in 1990 GHG emission amounted to 944.4 Mt CO2 eq, compared to 2012 when GHG emissions amounted to 402.7 Mt CO2 eq (excluding LULUCF), 42.6 % of the 1990 level. GHG emissions including LULUCF amounted to 876.4 Mt CO2 eq. in 1990 and 375.4 Mt CO2 eq in 2012, 42.9% of the 1990 level. The reduction was mainly due to the GDP decrease and decline in the population and social living standards. According to the INDC from 2015, the GHG emissions will not exceed the 60% of the 1990 GHG emission level in 2030. Sectors identified: energy, industrial processes and product use, agriculture, land use, land-use change and forestry and waste.
GHG emission mitigation potential through technology transfer has been identified though increasing energy efficiency in the building sector, thermal insulation, heating, cooling, ventilation, increasing energy efficiency in the use of electricity and heat energy and/or fuels in all sectors of economy; energy efficient technologies in agriculture, reduction in fossil fuel consumption, energy efficient food production processes; increased output and use of RES, including, installation of solar or wind energy devises; use of hydroelectricity generators for irrigation purposes; biomass power plants; biogas production and expansion of its use for heat and electricity production purposes; modernization of transport industry; highly efficient cogeneration; improvement of waste treatment etc.
Sources of information
- Intended nationally Determined Contributions of Ukraine (2015)
- Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine (presentation 2018)
Photo credit: Tiia Monto