The Republic of Serbia is situated in southeastern Europe, on the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. Serbia borders Hungary to the north, Romania and Bulgaria to the east, Macedonia to the south, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the west and claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Northern Serbia is mainly flat, while central parts are highlands and going to the south the hills gradually turn into mountains. Up to 30 mountain peaks are over 2000 m above sea level. The State Rivers belong to the Basins of the Black, Adriatic and Aegean Seas. Three rivers are navigable along the whole length through Serbia: the Danube (the longest one), the Sava and the Tisa. In Serbia a continental climate prevails in the mountainous, whilst the climate in the Serbian southwest borders on the Mediterranean subtropical and continental.
The Republic of Serbia is since 2006 an independent democratic state with a multiparty parliamentary system and with European Union (EU) candidate status since March 2012. Serbia is a developing country with USD 14,493 GDP per capita according to International Monetary Fund’s data from 2016. According to the EU legislation Serbian goal is GHG emission reduction by 9,8 % until 2030 compared to 1990 emission. The Republic of Serbia has been part of the United Framework Convention on Climate Change since 2001 and the Kyoto Protocol since 2008.
In 2014 estimated GHG total emissions in the Republic of Serbia without removals were 67,148.23 Gg CO2eq which have increased by 7.8% since 2000. In 2014, the total GHG emissions with sinks were 49,299.24 Gg CO2eq, which is a 2.4% increase compared to 2000. The largest share (80.0%) in total emissions in 2014 had energy sector (80.0 %), which has a slight increase of 0.8 % compared to 2000. The second largest GHG emitting sector is the Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use (AFOLU). Besides them, two more sectors with relevant GHG emission in Serbia are Industrial and Waste Management Sectors.
According to 2014 estimates, emissions from energy sector amounted to 53,732.71 Gg CO2eq, or 80.0% of total GHG emissions. Since 2000, emissions have increased by 9.0%, mainly as a result of significantly higher consumption of diesel and gasoline in road transport and moderate fuel consumption in energy industry. Out of total estimated GHG emissions from energy sector in the year 2014, 94.8% originated from fuel combustion activities in which 71.9% belong to energy industries, 9.6% to manufacturing industries and construction, 12.4% to transport and 6.1% to other sectors.
Serbia will try to follow selected measures and technology improvements for the energy sector in order to reduce GHG emissions estimated in “scenario with measures” and “scenario with additional measures” and meet its electricity needs by 2050. Additional projections are as follows:
- 37% higher share of renewable energy sources, by 93% compared to 2030, for all the three scenarios;
- highly efficient cogeneration installations (CHP) using biomass and natural gas by 57% more in 2050 compared to 2030 in the scenario “with additional measures”;
- large thermal power plants with capacity exceeding 300 MW will be revitalized with use of BET (Best Available Technologies) in striving for 30% energy savings;
- capacities and production from renewable energy sources will increase by 564 МW based on the projected trend from 2020-2030;
- implementation of carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) in new coal power plants (700 MW) can lead to an additional reduction of 4000 GgCО2;
- in transport sector, introduction of vehicles with high energy efficiency (more efficient engine, design and fuel);
- increased energy efficiency through improvement of thermal insulation of buildings;
- installation of a new system or replacement of the existing heating systems with energy-efficient systems for hot water supply;
- installation of individual heat metering, use of energy-efficient household appliances and office equipment;
- efficient lighting;
- smart heating and cooling systems, as well as the use of renewable energy sources and integrated smart systems;
- installation of solar thermal systems for supply and maintenance of water temperature;
- construction of low-energy buildings (of minimum A energy level).
In 2014, emissions from the industrial processes was 5.1% of total GHG emissions and have increased by 10.9% since 2000 (but with significant differences in the share of individual sub-sectors: mineral industry (decreased by 37.6%), chemical industry (increased by 2.7 times), metal industry (decreased by 18.6%).
Measures to help GHG reduction in industrial sector:
- the use of CCS technology in refineries, steel mills and cement industry;
- technological modernization of the industrial process;
- increasing energy and material efficiency and unselective catalytic reduction;
- the additional increase of energy efficiency and technological changes in the production process.
Agriculture in Serbia is accounting for 9.5% of GDP from 2013 data. In the year 2014, estimated total net removals from Agriculture, forestry and other land use sector (AFOLU) amounted to 11,111.69 Gg CO2eq. Since 2000, total net removal has increased by 46.8%.
Needed measures in agriculture sector by 2050 include: change of livestock farming, manure anaerobic digestion and production of biogas, extension of crop rotation with a larger share of legumes, more frequent crop rotation by using intercropping, improvement of methods of use of mineral fertilizers and organic fertilizers, agricultural forestry, change of diet regiment of livestock and of livestock food quality.
In 2014, estimated emissions from the waste sector amounted to 3276.03 Gg CO2eq, or 4.9% of total GHG emissions. Estimated emissions in 2014 decreased by 1.3% compared to emissions in 2000 from this sector. In the sector of waste management 60.7% of total emissions in the year 2014 originated from solid waste disposal on land, and 39.3% from wastewater treatment. Those two sources present main GHG emission sources form the waste sector.
Sources of information
- Second national communication of the Republic of Serbia under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
- Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) of the Republic of Serbia
- First Biennial Update report of the Republic of Serbia under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change