Montenegro is an independent, sovereign state with a republican form of government. The total surface area of the state territory is 13,812 km2 with population of 620,029 (2011 census). According to World Bank data from 2015, GDP per capita is 16,854 US dollars, which is 41% of the EU-28 average GDP (PPP). The country is located in southeast Europe, with primarily mountainous area. It has a coastline on the Adriatic Sea of 316 km long to the southwest and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, Kosovo to the east, and Albania to the southeast. Montenegro joined the UNFCCC in 2006 as non-Annex 1 country and has ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2007. Since the country is in the process of EU accession, the climate and energy legislation need to be harmonized with EU directives.
In Montenegro, the total emissions with sinks range from -364.57 Gg CO2 eq. in 1994 to 4,703.27 Gg in 1991. High levels of CO2 sinks are the consequence of the large forest areas. The negative economic trends and the continuous decline of industrial production, combined with relatively low emissions from certain sectors resulted in relatively low levels of emissions recorded over the 1990-2013 period.
The sectoral GHG emission levels for Montenegro was 4239 kilotons in 1990 and the goal is to reduce it to the level below or at 3667 kilotons. The reduction measures will be focused on general increase of energy efficiency, improvement of industrial technologies, increase of renewable utilization and modernization in the power sector.
The highest direct GHG emissions are coming from the Energy sector and Industrial Processes, followed by Agriculture and Waste Sectors. The share of emission from different sectors are:
- The share of emissions produced by the energy sector ranged from 22.12% in 1995 to 76.10% in 2013;
- The share of emissions produced through industrial processes ranged from 4.43% in 1994 to 60.91% in 1995 (highest emission in the observation period);
- CO2 eq emissions produced by the agriculture sector ranged from 20.16% in 1994 to 6.54% in 2010;
- The waste sector produced the lowest emissions ranged from 0.38% in 1990 to 6.33% in 2009;
The energy and transport sector
The energy sector is the main source of GHG emissions generated by human activity with 4 main subsectors: Fuel combustion activities, Electricity and heat production, Manufacturing industries and construction and Transport. The biggest share of direct GHG represents CO2 with most of it coming from energy transformation and electricity generation. In Montenegro, the energy sector took 75.2% and 76.10% of total GHG emission in 2012 and 2013 respectively. This sector includes all activities related to fuel combustion in stationary and mobile sources and fugitive emissions released during the production, transport, refining, storage and distribution of fossil fuels. Electricity and heat production subsector has the highest emission within total GHG emission from energy sector. Emissions in the transport subsector register stable growth due to the increase in the number of vehicles.
According to Technology Needs Assessment, measures and technologies for emission reduction in energy sector are following:
- Increasing the efficiency of electricity generation in the thermal power plant Pljevlja;
- Orientation towards new renewable energy sources (small HPP, Onshore wind plants, Solar photovoltaic panels, Small CHP plants, biomass, Solar thermal power plants, Large hydropower plants, Natural gas plants (combined cycle), Plasma gasification);
- Increasing the efficiency in energy consumption through:
- Heat generation in industrial facilities (revitalisation of boilers, CHP);
- Solar systems, Heat pumps, Insulation;
- Efficient lighting, refrigerators (efficient household appliances) and air conditioning systems;
- Use of natural gas;
- Automated control of energy consumption in buildings;
- More efficient vehicles in transport (hybrid vehicles, Plug‐in hybrids, Efficient diesel engines, Electric vehicles) and more frequent use of public transport as well as usage of liquefied petroleum gas and biofuels;
- Using heat pumps and quality insulation of buildings;
- Using solar energy and small cogenerations for heating needs in households and the service sector;
- EE appliances (energy labels);
- Fuels switch:
- For heating needs (LPG instead of coal in boilers);
- In motor fuels (introducing biofuels and hydrogen);
Industry stands for the second biggest GHG sector emitter in Montenegro with mining and metal industry as the key branches. In the metal industry, the most important emitters are production of aluminum and steel. Beside these the industry sector covers the production of food, beverages, tobacco, textiles, lime, leather products, paper, medicines, rubber and plastic products. In 1991, the industrial production in the country was intensive, and therefore industry accounted for 49% of total GHG emissions. After the decline in industry production, the share of emission decreased to 11.2% in 2012 and to 8.9% in 2013. Due to the special technological processes, the most signiﬁcant emissions of CO2 within the industrial sector come from the aluminum industry.
Recommended measures to reduce the emissions from industrial processes are:
- Increasing efficiency and working temperature of electrolysers in Aluminum production;
- Point feeding of alumina and improve process control;
- Inert anodes - “low-consumable” anodes that do not lead to the oxidation and consumption of anode tissue, and thus the generation of GHG emissions;
In 1991, agricultural land in Montenegro covered 517.136 ha, while the surface area of used agricultural land in 2013 was 223 131 ha. The GHG emissions from the agriculture sector recorded a decline in almost all segments during the time frame from 1990 to 2002, due to a decline in livestock breeding and crop production. Total emissions together with sinks from the agriculture and land use sectors, went from -999.11 Gg CO2 eq. in 1990 to -2172.37 Gg in 2002 due to the large forested areas in Montenegro.
Methane represents the highest share of total GHG emission with enteric fermentation being responsible for 73–83%, followed by manure management 17.3–26.6%.
Adaptation technologies and measures for agricultural land and agricultural production are:
- Adequate fertilisation and soil fertility control;
- Constructing terraces;
- Sprinkler and drip irrigation;
- Water and Forest users associations;
- Integrated crop protection;
- Livestock health control;
- Combined agricultural production;
- Practical training for producers;
In the time scale from 1990 to 2013, waste sector registered slight increase in GHG emission. The solid waste disposal subsector presented the highest share of emission. GHG emissions from this sector are the results of the disposal and treatment of municipal solid waste, wastewater management and waste incineration.
Measures to reduce GHG emissions in the waste sector are:
- Construction of regional centers for waste treatment (including sanitary landﬁll) and the burning of landﬁll gas;
- Control over the processes and subsequent maintenance of landﬁlls;
- Reduction of the amount of biodegradable waste;
- Adoption of action plan to regulate disposal of solid waste that would remain from the current anode production;
- Plasma technology for resolving the problem of final disposal of waste;
- Organizational improvements in waste collection system;
- Regulations on waste disposal and recycling;
- Wastewater treatment and reuse;
- Preventing the occurrence of waste, reducing the amount of waste or re-use of waste;
Sources of information:
- The second National Communication on climate change of Montenegro to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
- Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) of Montenegro
- Technology Needs Assessment for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation for Montenegro
- First Biennial Update report on Climate Change of Montenegro