Republic of Moldova is located in Central Europe, in the Black Sea region. The country’s size is 33,846 square km, bordered by Ukraine in the North, East and South, by Romania in the West, with the Western border line going along the river Prut. Its southern border extends almost as far as the Black Sea coast, and the access to the Black Sea is open for the Republic of Moldova through the Dniester estuary and the Danube.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) levels were decreasing continuously during the period from 1990 to 1999 inclusively, the lowest being in 1999 when it was only 34% of the 1990 level. A considerable GDP growth was achieved since 2000, which indicates that the economy is finally developing but still, in 2016 reached only the 72.1 % of the 1990 GDP level.
Republic of Moldova is fully committed to the UNFCCC negotiation process, the Paris Agreement was signed on September 21, 2016, and ratified by the Parliament through Law No. 78 from 04.05.2017 for the ratification of the Paris Agreement (Official Monitor No. 162-170 from 26.05.2017).
In comparison with the base year level (1990), by 2015, Moldova has reduced its GHG emissions by circa 67.8%, from 43.40 Mt CO2 equivalent in 1990 to 13.95 Mt CO2 equivalent in 2015. The main GHG emission contributor to the national direct GHG emissions is the energy sector with approximately 68.1 %. The other direct GHG emission sources are the Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry sector with -20.4%, the Agriculture sector with 15.2%, the Waste sector with 11.0% and the Industrial Processes and Product Use sector with 5.7%.
The Republic of Moldova is introducing a set of sectoral climate change mitigation policies and measures which on a long term will lead to a GHG emissions reduction of 64-67% by 2030 compared to the baseline year (1990). Reduction by 64% corresponds to the scenario of energy system development that allows to cover internal consumption of electricity entirely from internal production, and 67% reduction scenario admits up to 30% electricity imports. In figures, according to the BAU scenario, the projection of total national GHG emission reduction (with LULUCF) is expected to be 19,089 kt CO2 eq by 2030, with the same scenario the total national GHG emission reduction without LULUCF is projected for 19,055 kt CO2 eq by 2030. With the WM (with measure) scenario, the total national GHG emission reduction with LULUCF is projected for 16,086 kt CO2 eq by 2030, without LULUCF 16,512 kt CO2 eq by 2030. With the WAM (with additional measures) scenario, the total national GHG emission reduction with LULUCF is projected for 13,735 kt CO2 eq by 2030, without LULUCF 14,086 kt CO2 eq by 2030. The overall goal is supported by intermediate targets established for the years 2020 and 2025, including by sectors. These targets may be conditionally increased by up to 78% provided there is more low cost financial support, technology transfer and multilateral technical cooperation provided through the international mitigation mechanisms planned to be developed and approved under the UNFCCC.
The energy and transport sector
Energy-related activities are by far the largest source of GHG emissions in the country. Includes emissions of all GHGs from fuel combustion (stationary and mobile combustion) for the primary purpose of delivering energy (94% of total emissions per sector in 2015), as well as fugitive releases of GHGs from the production, processing, transmission, storage, and delivery of fossil oil and natural gas (6% of total emissions per sector in 2015).
Between 1990 and 2015, total GHG emissions from the Energy sector decreased by 72.6 %, from 34.6308 Mt CO2 equivalent in 1990 to 9.5049 Mt CO2 equivalent in 2015.
Within the Energy sector, the Energy Industries subsector contributes with the highest level of emissions, accounting for 43.6% of the total per sector in 2015 (56.0 % in 1990). Other like Transport contributes with 23.2% of the total per sector (12.9 % cent in 1990), Other sectors, with 20.2% of the total (22 % in 1990) and the Manufacturing Industries and Construction with 7.0 % of the total (6.4% in 1990).
Moldova’s Energy Strategy until the year 2030 sets the main objectives and path for mitigation measures in the energy sector, which provides information also on technology needs to achieve these objectives:
- Diversification of natural gas routes and sources - construction of new pipelines,
- Strengthening the transition role of electricity
- Production of electric and thermal energy - construction 1050 MW new capacity by 2020, of which 650 MW by cogeneration on natural gas and 400 MW from renewables; rehabilitation of existing capacities; thermal energy
- Increasing energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources, reducing energy intensity by 20% by year 2020;
- reducing losses in transmission and distribution networks for electricity, natural gas and thermal power;
- reducing energy consumption in buildings by 20% by 2020;
- refurbishing 10 % of public buildings 2020;
- ensuring a 10% share of annual production of electricity from renewable energy sources by 2020;
- the share of renewables in the energy consumption in the transport of at least 10% by 2020.
In the Transport sector the objectives are to:
- Reduce the amount of carbon in fuels used for land vehicles;
- Increase the efficiency of the car fuel combustion;
- Encourage use of environmentally friendly transport (electric and hybrid vehicles);
- Improve the quality of roads;
- Reduce emissions from air-conditioning systems in motor vehicles;
The Buildings sector’s share in the total direct GHG emissions is 21%, there is a high potential for energy efficiency measures, through reducing the energy consumption of both residential and public buildings, improving energy security by using biomass for heating.
The IPPU sector represents an important GHG emission source that includes emissions generated by non-energy industrial activities. In 2015, this sector accounted for circa 5.7 % of the total national GHG emissions (3.6 % in 1990). Between 1990 - 2015 the total sectoral GHG emissions decreased by 49.7 %, from 1.5810 Mt CO2 equivalent in 1990 to 0.7951 Mt CO2 equivalent in 2015. The most important source of emission in this sector is represented by Cement Production, with 55.8 % of the total sectoral emissions in 2015 (61.5 % in 1990).
Mitigation measures in the Industrial sector are aiming at reducing energy demand and capitalizing on the energy saving potential through the use of equipment, machinery and advanced technologies.
The Agriculture Sector represents an important source of direct GHG emissions. In 2015, the agriculture sector accounted for 15.2% of the total national direct GHG emissions (12.0 % in 1990). Between 1990 and 2015 total GHG emissions originated from this sector decreased by 59.4 %: from 5.2106 Mt CO2 equivalent in 1990 to 2.1147 Mt CO2 equivalent in 2015.
GHG emissions from the agricultural sector are basically generated by enteric fermentation, waste management and agricultural soils. Measures aiming GHG emission reduction are:
- Improving the cattle genetic pool by means of artificial insemination;
- Introduction of the cattle farming, sheep and goat farming enhancement program;
- Manure management, including manure processing for biogas production;
- Stop soil degradation and enhancing the soil quality through anti-erosion and hydrological planning of agricultural lands, conservation soil cultivation systems, organic fertilization of soils, manure collection from individual households for composting, introducing crop rotation, decreasing the share of hoeing crops, harmless chemical fertilization of agricultural crops, etc.
Waste Sector is an important source of GHG emissions in the country. In 2015, the waste sector accounted for 11.0 % of the total national direct GHG emissions (4.6 % in 1990). Within 1990-2015 periods, total GHG emissions from this sector decreased by 22.2 %: from 1.9777 Mt CO2 equivalent in 1990 to 1.5387 Mt CO2 equivalent in 2015.
Reducing GHG emissions in the waste sector is planned through reducing methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites and from wastewater treatment plants, re-use and recycling of biodegradable waste, and recovery of energy from waste and wastewater. There are Laws approved for charging for waste disposal of aggressive pollutants in the air, for waste disposal from pig, cattle, and poultry farms, for discharging pollutants with wastewater, for storing waste at solid waste disposal sites, etc., but these measures are not always enforced and have no real impact on the sectoral emission.
Technology transfer with GHG emission reduction are implemented under two CDM projects focusing on fermentation of biodegradable waste at a sugar factory, and producing electricity through burning methane and using the remaining part of biogas collected from the solid waste disposal site.
Between 1990 and 2015, the LULUCF Sector represented a sink of net carbon removals. Within the respective period, net CO2 removals registered a decreasing trend, reducing by 51.1%, from -5.8197 Mt CO2 equivalent recorded in 1990 to -2.8454 Mt CO2 equivalent in 2015. This process was also influenced by some changes in the maintenance and use of forests, authorized increased amounts of harvested wood, substantial increase of illegal loggings, increased conversion of forest land into cropland etc.
Measures introduced in the forestry sector are aiming to increase the forests area up to
15% by 2020, at the same time enhancing the condition of existing forests, conserving the forests biodiversity, compiling the seed database, gradual reconstruction/replacement of arboretums noncompliant with standing conditions, gradual conversion of oak species arboretums from grove to forest mode.
Sources of information:
- Fourth National Communication of the Republic of Moldova
- National Inventory report 1990-2015
Photo credit: Samoil Alexei Alexandru