Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is situated in southeastern Europe, on the western side of the Balkan Peninsula. BiH is bordered by Croatia to the north and west, Serbia to the east, Montenegro to the southeast and the Adriatic Sea to the south, with a coastline of 23.5 kilometers long. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, with an average altitude of 500 meters, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers, cold and snowy winters. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. There are seven river basins of surface water of which 75.5% belongs to the Black Sea catchment area and 24.3% to the Adriatic Sea catchment area. Bosnia and Herzegovina is rich in thermal, mineral and thermal-mineral waters.
BiH is a developing country with 3,509 Euro GDP per capita in 2013 which in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) amounts 29% of the EU-27 average in 201The country has a decentralized political and administrative structure, according to the Dayton accord. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a decentralized country comprising two entities (the Republic of Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Brčko District.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is a potential candidate for EU membership. UNFCCC was ratified in 2000 and The Kyoto Protocol on 16 April 2007. Based on BiH’s 3rd National Communication and 2nd Biennial Update Report, total emissions in 2002 from 16,170 Gg CO2eq (47.5% compared to the baseline of 1990) have increased to 28.086 Gg CO2eq in 2011 (82% compared to the baseline of 1990). Following this, a decrease of CO2 emission was observed, as in 2013 it was 24,028 CO2eq, i.e. 70.6% of the emission in 1990. The most significant source of CO2 emissions is the energy sector, which between 2002-2013 contributed with about 53% of total CO2 emissions, followed by agriculture (14%), industrial processes (6%) and waste (5%). The share of emissions from other sectors in the total emissions during this period is about 22%.
In Third National Communication of Bosnia and Herzegovina, overviews of mitigation scenarios are done for different sectors. Mitigation scenarios of GHG emission by 2050 and summary of activities, projects and initiatives that will contribute to mitigation are described in TNC for: electric power sector, renewable energy sources, district heating, transport, buildings, agriculture, forestry and waste.
According to Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) of Bosnia and Herzegovina main sectors for Emissions reduction relative to a Business As Usual baseline for reaching 2030 goals are: Energy, Industrial processes, Agriculture, Land use change and forestry (sinks) and Waste.
Energy production sector is the main source of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases and contributes around 70% in total CO2 emissions. This sector covers all activities encompassing the consumption of fossil fuels and fugitive emissions from fuel. Fugitive emissions occur during production, transport, processing, storage and distribution of fossil fuels.
Share of energy industry in total emissions vary from 61 to 70% through years. The highest emission from energy industries was in 2011 and it amounted 72 % of emission in the base year 1990.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is an exporter of electricity. Total electricity generation in 2013 was approximately 17,451 GWh, while final consumption was approximately 10,933 GWh. Electricity consumption per capita is relatively low compared to European countries. In 2013 56.5% of electricity was generated in power plants using domestic coal. Coal power plants have high specific emissions of carbon dioxide (1.3 tCO2/MWh). The rest of the electricity is generated mainly in large scale hydropower plants, with a minor contribution of small hydropower plants. According to the Energy Community Treaty, by 2020 BiH has to achieve the share of renewable energy sources in total energy consumption by 40% (from the current 34%). The goal is that in 2050 all the quantities of electricity are produced from renewable energy sources.
Most promising areas for technology developments are those related to energy and transport sector.
Around one hundred technologies for mitigation and adaptation were identified in total for all sectors and sub-sectors and assessed to be of interest for climate and development policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- Large hydropower plants
- Large wind plants
- Small HPP
- 4. Efficient coal-fired power plant
- 5. Biomass CHP Plant
- 6. Solar photovoltaic panels
- 7. Waste-to-energy plants
- 8. Natural gas plants (combined cycle)
- 9. Coal-mine methane
- 10. Wind plants on buildings
- Solar systems
- Heat pumps
- Efficient lighting
- Efficient refrigerators (efficient household appliances)
- Use of natural gas
- Efficient air conditioning systems
- Automated control of energy consumption in buildings
Emissions from transport are increasing by years. The share of emissions from transport in energy sector emissions rose from almost 10% in 1990 to 30% in 2005 and it dropped again in 2013 to 23%. These fluctuations may be explained by the changes in energy production (coal consumption) patterns. In 2014, a total of 921,643 road vehicles were registered, which is by 2.93% more than in 2013 (895,425 vehicles). Broken down by type of power generation, 63% of passenger motor vehicles used diesel and 33% petrol, and 4% used other energy sources. Within the transport sector, road transport sub-sector accounts for over 90% in greenhouse gas emission. The road network in BiH is among the least developed in Europe.
Technologies for mitigation and climate change adaptation in the Transport:
- Public Transport (PT) improvement
- Liquefied petroleum gas
- Bike lanes
- Electric vehicles
- Intelligent transport system (ITS)
- Promotion and regulating non-motorized transport (NMT) in urban areas.
District heating companies in BiH mainly have their own plants for the production of thermal energy. For fuel they mainly use heavy fuel oil and coal, natural gas in some parts and lately there is an increase in use of biomass. Other facilities such as hospitals, clinics, state and other institutions have their own plants for thermal energy production. In most of the heating companies, heating plants are older than 30 years. They are low efficient and in some cases heat losses go up to 60%. Mitigation for GHG emission decrease:
- Biomass combustion and combustion of different materials in order to obtain electricity and heat
- Combustion of municipal solid waste for district heating or electricity generation
- Heat pumps for heating or cooling and water heating
- Energy services in the community
- Solar cooling and hybrid systems for heating and hot water
- Solar technologies for heating.
Other measurements for GHG emission reduce would be in the building sector. Large number of buildings in BiH are very old, with outdated technologies for heating and cooling and extremely high energy consumption. Therefore completion of these buildings have a huge potential for reducing power consumption and GHG emissions. Measures:
- Insulation of buildings
- Carbon adsorbents and low-emission building materials
- Passive house project
- Energy savings in buildings
- The life cycle of buildings and integrated design process
- Greening the built environment
- Sustainable designing of the community and practice
- Solar technology.
Greenhouse gases occur as a by-product of different industrial processes. The industrial processes known as significant contributors to CO2 emissions are the production of cement, lime, ammonia, iron and steel, ferroalloys, and aluminium, as well as the use of lime and dehydrated soda lime in various industrial processes.
The share of agriculture, hunting, and related services comprised 6.26% of GDP in 2012 in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The agricultural production in BiH can be observed from two perspectives: as sinks potentials and as a source of GHG. Existing sink capacity of land and manners of use in BiH for the main greenhouse gases amounts to approximately 1,305.3 Mt CO2eq. The total greenhouse gas emissions in the sector of agricultural production based on the S1 scenario will rise by 2050, when it will amount to 8,170 GgCO2eq (126% more than the value of the emission in the base year). Based on the scenario S2, the most realistic scenario for BiH, the total annual emission of GHG will be reduced and in 2050, compared to 2015, will have total decrease of 5%. The expected emission from the agricultural sector in the period from 2025 to 2050, according to the best option, scenario 3, will have decrease of 20%.
Measure needed to be implemented for GHG emission reduction in this sector:
- Conservation tillage
- Reduction of emissions of nitrogen compounds by introducing best practices of manure management
- Management in livestock and plant production
- Organic farming and Sustainable pasture management
- Livestock management: straw ammoniation and silage
- Crop residue management
- Crop varieties with enhanced carbon sequestration
- Application of agro-technical measures for water harvesting and moisture conservation
- Reconstruction and construction of irrigation system in agriculturally developed areas
- Reconstruction and construction of the drainage system in the lowland floodplains and heavy soils
- Construction of micro reservoirs
Total emissions and sinks in the forestry sector and land use change for BiH were calculated for the period between 2002 and 2009 and for 2012 and 201Between 60% and 70% of territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina is covered with forests (about 93% natural and only 7% of planted forests, approximately 2.28 million hectares in total) which indicates their importance as a significant CO2 sink. The extent of logging is increasing by years while the extent of afforestation is becoming reduced. Based on results and calculations of the annual release/ emission of carbon, the final annual sink of carbon dioxide by forest ecosystems in BiH for the baseline year 1990 is 7,423.53 Gg CO2, and for the year 2013 is 6,141 Gg CO
Mitigation measures for GHG emission decrease relevant to Forestry sector:
- Afforestation (new technologies starting from the selection of seedlings tolerant to drought to the manner of planting and maintenance of plantations)
- Raising intensive plantations for biomass production
- Preventing forest fires (satellite monitoring)
- Agroforestry (production for the needs of agriculture and forestry in the same space and time)
- Biotechnology in the function of adaptation to climate change (breeding, bio-engineering ...)
- Monitoring system for monitoring the impact of climate change on forest ecosystems
- Biofuel and biopolymers production
- Urban forestry
The amount of waste generated in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2010 and 2011 was 1,152,690 t and 1,163,370 t, respectively, with a slight rise of 1%. Daily amount of waste generated per capita is 0.87 kg/capita/day, while the coverage by the services of collection and disposal is approximately around 72% for 2010 and 75% for 201Currently, there are 4 regional landfills in BiH. In addition to the aforementioned, the document also takes into account the new (of 2014) proposals of the European Commission to encourage increase in recycling, with targets of 70% for municipal waste by 2030.
Measures that will be implemented in Waste sector for GHG emission reduction:
- Post-consumer recycling
- Biological treatment including composting, anaerobic digestion and MBT
- Thermal processes (incineration and industrial co-incineration, MBT with the disposal of residues and anaerobic digestion)
Sources of information
- THIRD NATIONAL COMMUNICATION AND SECOND BIENNIAL UPDATE REPORT ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
- Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) of Bosnia and Herzegovina